EGFR amplification, which stands for epidermal growth factor receptor amplification, may be important in defining which tumors may react to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target EGFR. The epidermal growth factor receptor is a protein of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family). Epidermal growth factor triggers cellular growth and differentiation by attaching to the EGF receptor. Growth factors are the first location on cells where signaling, differentiation, and proliferation occur.
The epidermal growth factor receptor is part of the area that controls the signaling pathways for cell production. The EGFR gene may experience amplification, which can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Detection of EGFR amplification or high polysomy can, in turn, lead to better patient outcomes via response to EGFR TKIs.
Studies have shown that tumors with amplified EGFR are more likely to have a substantial chance of growth. This hints that amplified EGFR relates to aggressive tumors. There is also ongoing research about the relationship between mutation and EGFR status. Conclusions support that EGFR mutations take place in the beginning stages of lung carcinogenesis, and that gene amplification occurs at a later time. EGFR amplification may also result in a higher-grade, aggressive tumor.