T-Cell Lymphoma

T-cell lymphomas are fairly rare types of cancer that forms in the type of white blood cells that are lymphocytes. There are 2 kinds of lymphocytes, B-cells and T-cells, that can develop into lymphomas. T-cell lymphoma is categorized as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Cancerous lymphocytes travel in the bloodstream and can form tumors in many areas of the body, including the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, blood, or other organs. There are several subtypes of T-cell lymphomas, which typically require different diagnostic and treatment approaches. These subtypes include:

  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS)
  • Anaplastic large cell lymphoma
  • Angioimmunoblastic lymphoma
  • Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
  • Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL)
  • Enteropathy-type intestinal T-cell lymphoma
  • Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma
  • Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma
  • Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma

Causes of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas vary but are often associated with abnormal chromosomes—specifically, chromosomal translocations in which some genetic material is mixed up during replication—as well as viral infections. Treatment options depends on the specific subtype of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and may be treated with one of the following modalities:

  • Chemotherapy
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Radiation therapy
  • Emerging therapies, such as gene therapy and targeted cancer therapies